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Sculptures by Phyllis Bone


Digeneans are endoparasites. The life cycle involves two to four hosts and a number of developmental stages, including two types of free-living larvae. The definitive host of the adult is always a vertebrate. Snails are common intermediate hosts.

Clockwise from top left:

Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Opisthorchis sp. liver flukes of mammals;

blood flukes, Schistosoma spp., are among the most widespread and serious parasites of humans.